The coral reefs are part of underwater ecology, they are made up of coral polyps which are formed together by calcium carbonate. Coral reefs bring in an ecology of services for the travel industry, fishing industry and for the protection of shoreline. Coral reefs are sensitive in form, so they can get destroyed in harsh water surroundings. Presently they are under risk from high sea temperatures, overfishing, harmful chemicals dumped in the sea, overfishing etc.
According to study by Cesar et al, at the ‘The Economic of Worldwide Coral Reef Degradation. The Netherlands’, the worldwide economic value of coral reefs is projected between US$30–375 billion and US$9.9 trillion.
According to research conducted at California Press, University of Berkeley, Coral covers an area of 284,300 km2 (109,800 sq mi) under 0.1% of the oceans' surface area. The Indo Pacific region which includes Indo-Pacific, namely the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, it consists of 91.9% of this total. Southeast Asia consists of 32.3% while the Pacific including Australia consists of 40.8%. Atlantic and Caribbean coral reefs consist of 7.6%) consists of 91.9% of the total. Southeast Asia consists of 32.3% of that number, while the Pacific consists of 40.8%. Atlantic and Caribbean coral reefs consist of 7.6%.
The largest Reefs in the world are called the Great Barrier Reef found in Queensland, Australia, it includes an area of 2,900 individual reefs, 900 islands stretching for over 2,600 kilometers.
Green Gas Emissions
According to research conducted by Rice University Earth Scientists they state with caution that, unless the greenhouse gas emission is not reduced the delicate coral reefs in the Gulf of Mexico similar to the ones in the rest of the world are under rapid threat of extinction.
Professor of Earth, environmental and planetary sciences Sylvia Dee, from Rice, the University of Texas at Austin and Louisiana State University drew their evidence from wide analysis of stressors on corals that line the Gulf coast.
The coral reefs located in Gulf of Mexico, known as Flower Garden Banks reefs help maintain the ecology of aquatic life. As they have an interdependent relationship with algae, coral gets food from them, which helps them survive.
With temperature fluctuations in the sea water, increase in excessive nutrients in the sea water, water pollution. They emit algae which lives in the tissue which helps them to exist. Without algae they do not get the food to eat, they turn white known as bleaching, which makes them prone to diseases which results in their death.
Professor of Earth, environmental and planetary sciences Sylvia Dee, from Rice, the University of Texas stated that, "The best-case situation is that we have rapid and widespread reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the near term, the next 20 years, concern is that if the heating gets worse every single year, it's going to be close to impossible for the corals to bounce back."
So, in conclusion it is important to reduce pollution, reduce overfishing, reducing the earth’s rising temperature. By taking active efforts to protect environment. The coral reefs not only in Gulf of Mexico but also the corals located in the rest of the world. As it will result in sustainability of the marine life.