Eiffel Tower-sized asteroid to pass Earth today, would leave 3-mile crater if it hit

A massive asteroid bigger than the Eiffel Tower is set to whizz by Earth on Friday, NASA has warned. The potentially hazardous space rock is so large it would leave a three mile crater and mass destruction if it hit our planet.

2019 GT3 is almost as big as a skyscraper, with a diameter of 1,247 feet and will hurtle past Earth at 30,500 miles per hour. If it were to head straight for our planet, it would be too large to break up in the atmosphere and would crash to the ground, likely causing massive damage. 

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The asteroid is due to come within 0.04996 astronomical units or around 4.6 million miles of Earth, placing it squarely in the potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) category used by astronomers to describe some near-Earth objects that could make “threatening close approaches,” NASA’s Center for Near Earth Object Studies (CNEOS) explains

Our close encounter with 2019 GT3 comes just weeks after another close call with a “city-killer” asteroid, 2019 OK, which scientists only detected mere hours before it sped by Earth. 

Asteroid Will Hit Earth Eventually, We Have No Defence Yet: Elon Musk

San Francisco: A huge asteroid will eventually hit the humanity and there will be no way out, SpaceX CEO Elon Musk has predicted.

A monster asteroid called Apophis -- named after an Egyptian "God of Chaos" -- will come dangerously close to the Earth, about 19,000 miles (31,000 kms) above the surface.

"Great name! Wouldn't worry about this particular one, but a big rock will hit Earth eventually & we currently have no defence," Musk tweeted late Monday.

On April 13, 2029, a speck of light will streak across the sky, getting brighter and faster.

At one point it will travel more than the width of the full Moon within a minute and it will get as bright as stars.

But it won't be a satellite or an airplane -- it will be a 1,100-foot-wide, near-Earth asteroid called "Apophis" that will potentially cruise harmlessly by Earth.

"The Apophis close approach in 2029 will be an incredible opportunity for science," said Marina Brozovic, a radar scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, who works on radar observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs).

"We'll observe the asteroid with both optical and radar telescopes. With radar observations, we might be able to see surface details that are only a few meters in size," she added.

It's rare for an asteroid of this size to pass by the Earth so close.

Although scientists have spotted small asteroids, on the order of 5-10 meters, flying by Earth at a similar distance, asteroids the size of Apophis are far fewer in number and so do not pass this close to Earth as often.

The asteroid, looking like a moving star-like point of light, will first become visible to the naked eye in the night sky over the Southern Hemisphere, flying above Earth from the east coast to the west coast of Australia.

It will then cross the Indian Ocean, and by the afternoon in the eastern US, it will have crossed the equator, still moving west, above Africa.

"Current calculations show that Apophis still has a small chance of impacting Earth, less than 1 in 100,000 many decades from now, but future measurements of its position can be expected to rule out any possible impacts," said NASA recently.

Apophis is a representative of about 2,000 currently known Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs).

"It is possible that there will be some surface changes, like small avalanches," Davide Farnocchia, an astronomer at JPL, said in the blog post.

Oceans are the ‘lungs of the Earth’

The United Nations calls oceans as the “lungs of the Earth” as they generate most of the oxygen we breathe. Oceans produce oxygen through marine plants, such as phytoplankton, kelp and algal planktons. These plants produce oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis.

Containing 97 percent of the world’s water, oceans are home to millions of marine species that provide humans with at least a sixth of the animal protein they eat, as well as ingredients for our medicines.

But benefits from oceans go beyond air, food and water. Oceans cover 70 percent of the world’s surface, and transport heat from the equator to the poles, regulating our climate and weather patterns. They absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and reduce climate-change impacts. 

Aside from these life-supporting products and services, oceans provide wondrous recreational areas and limitless inspiration to millions of people. Clearly, oceans play an essential role for life on earth.

Asean oceans: among the world’s richest marine ecosystems

The 10 Asean member-states—Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam—house a third of the world’s coral reefs, mangrove and seagrass areas.

According to Dr. Theresa Mundita S. Lim, executive director of Asean Centre for Biodiversity (ACB), nine out of 10 Asean countries are endowed with extensive coastlines, and all 10 Asean member-states have a total of 173,000 kilometers of shorelines.

Indonesia and the Philippines are recognized as among those having the most coral reef areas in the world. Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines are three of the six countries bordering the Coral Triangle, which is home to 75 percent of the world’s reef-building corals.

Overall, the Asean region hosts a third of the world’s coastal and marine habitats, which include coral reefs, mangroves, estuaries, sandy and rocky beaches, seagrass and seaweed beds, and other soft bottom communities.

These habitats and their resident species provide various forms of ecosystem services, such as breeding, nursing and feeding grounds for marine plants and animals, as well as resources important to livelihoods of coastal communities. 

Lim enumerated the regulatory ecosystem services derived from marine and coastal ecosystems: carbon sequestration and storage in mangrove tree trunks and roots, seagrass, seaweeds, and other algae; climate regulation; sediment protection; and shoreline retention to buffer coastal areas from storm surges.

According to the Asean Biodiversity Outlook 2, a publication of the ACB, coastal habitats maintain nutrient cycles and provide media for the exchange of genetic materials. These habitats provide cultural services in the form of recreation and tourism, education, research and places of worship.

There are various estimates of the monetary value of coastal habitats in the region. Coral reefs generate and may constitute a significant percentage of national economies, where such habitats occur in large scale, and where industries—such as coral reef-related tourism, fisheries, live fish aquarium, and shell craft industries thrive.

Coral reef-related tourism relies on water and habitat quality, the type and quality of services offered, and accessibility factors. The Asean Biodiversity Outlook 2 reported that potential annual economic value of coral reefs in the Asean region arising from fisheries, shoreline protection, tourism, recreation, and aesthetic values is estimated at $12.7 billion.

Clearly, resources from the oceans of the Asean region not only provide life-sustaining and economic benefits for some 650 Asean residents but also contribute to global sustainable development.

Behind the richness are the threats

Behind the richness of Asean’s oceans are the threats. The integrity of the world’s oceans, including in the Asean region, is threatened by marine debris and other forms of pollution; overfishing and use of destructive fishing practices; and coral bleaching, as well as other impacts from climate change. 

According to the Asean’s Population Reference Bureau, close to 500 million people will be living in or near coastal and marine areas in the Asean region by 2050.

Indonesia and the Philippines were identified by the Reefs at Risk Revisited Report as two countries that have tens of millions of coastal people living within 30 kilometers of reefs.

Considering that the Asean is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, its nearshore ecosystems have become more vulnerable to habitat change from overexploitation, sedimentation, pollution, coastal development, ineffective governance, and collateral damage from coastal tourism and climate change.

Plastic: Oceans’ enemy No. 1

Human activities present the biggest threat to oceans as more than 80 percent of marine pollution comes from land-based activities and wastes, specifically plastics.

A surge in single-use plastics has led to a global environmental catastrophe. The UN has reported that 13 million tons of plastic leak into the oceans every year, killing 100,000 marine animals annually, among other damages.

While most plastics are expected to remain intact for decades or centuries after use, those that do erode end up as microplastics, consumed by fish and other marine wildlife, quickly making their way into the global food chain.

In a presentation during the celebration of the International Day for Biodiversity held in Bangkok, Thailand, on May 2, Dr. Suchana Chavanich, a faculty member of the Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, said that 39 percent of plastic wastes go to open ocean waters; 33.7 percent settle in coastline and sea floor; 26.8 percent remain in coastal ocean waters; and 0.5 percent float on the waters.

Chavanich reported that a study conducted by the Chulalongkorn University found microplastics in 93 percent of bottled water.

Another threat to marine life is illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing.

According to a European Union report, the estimated global value of IUU fishing is around $11 billion to $22 billion per year. Between 11 million tons and 26 million tons of fish are caught illegally a year, accounting for at least 15 percent of the world’s catches. IUU unsustainably affects the world’s fish stocks.

Asean nations unite to protect the oceans

The 10 Asean member-states, supported by the Asean Centre for Biodiversity, recognize that protecting the Asean region’s oceans has a global significance, as benefits go beyond the borders of Southeast Asia.

Thus, they are working together to ensure that the region’s marine and coastal biodiversity and ecosystems are conserved, protected and sustainably used.

During the Special Asean Ministerial Meeting on Marine Debris held on March 5 in Bangkok, Thailand, the ministers responsible for natural resources, environment and marine affairs affirmed the Asean’s commitment to conserve the region’s marine environment and strengthen regional cooperation in addressing marine debris issues.

The ministers expressed their full support to advance partnerships for sustainability, as well as to promote synergy within the framework of Asean partnership, in particular to combat marine debris in the region.

During the 34th Asean Summit held in Bangkok, Thailand, on June 22, the heads of the 10 Asean member-states adopted the Bangkok Declaration on Combating Marine Debris, reiterating the commitment of the 10 Asean member-states in protecting and conserving the region’s rich marine resources.

The Bangkok Declaration called for collaborative actions to prevent and significantly reduce marine debris, particularly from land-based activities; recommended an integrated land-to-sea approach to prevent and reduce marine debris; and called for the strengthening of national laws and regulations, as well as enhancing regional and international cooperation, including on relevant policy dialogue and information sharing.

The declaration also promoted mainstreaming of biodiversity and ecosystem conservation as it called for coordination among Asean sectoral bodies to effectively address the multidimensional and far-reaching negative effects, as well as sources of marine debris pollution; and encouraged private-sector engagement and investment in preventing and reducing marine debris, including partnerships between public and private sector through various mechanisms and incentives.

The Bangkok Declaration called for the strengthening of research capacity and application of scientific knowledge to combat marine debris; accelerating advocacy and actions to increase public awareness and participation; and enhancing education for behavioral change toward preventing and reducing marine debris.

Marine debris is a transboundary issue that requires integrated regional cooperation. Without immediate action, marine debris pollution would negatively impact marine biodiversity, environment, health, society and economy. Marine debris threatens the health and cleanliness of oceans and their resources which are key to the sustenance and livelihood of hundreds of millions of people, including Asean residents.

Protecting and conserving oceans: a shared responsibility

Lim said saving our oceans is not the sole turf of governments, marine scientists, conservationists and environmentalists. She recommends the following actions that individuals can take to protect and conserve the world’s rich marine heritage:

  • Learn about the wealth of diverse and beautiful ocean creatures and habitats, how our daily actions affect them, and how we are all interconnected.
  • Mind our carbon footprint and reduce energy use.
  • Buy sustainably sourced seafoods.
  • Properly dispose wastes, especially hazardous materials.
  • Use fewer plastics or reusable ones and dispose them properly.
  • Join coastal cleanup activities.
  • Plant native species of mangrove trees.
  • Report illegal activities that are harmful to marine life.
  • Support organizations working to protect our oceans.
  • Influence change in our homes, schools and communities.

“Conservation is a shared responsibility. By working together, we can protect our shared oceans. Let us keep in mind that oceans are our life,” Lim said.

Water worlds can support life – we don’t need another ‘Earth,’ study finds

A world entirely covered in water could support life, according to a new study which challenges the prevailing scientific thought that living entities need a planet like Earth in order to survive.

After running more than 1,000 simulations, researchers at the University of Chicago and Pennsylvania State University found that ocean planets can stay in the “sweet spot” needed to support the cycling of minerals and gases that keep the climate stable on Earth, for much longer than previously assumed.

 

This really pushes back against the idea you need an Earth clone – that is, a planet with some land and a shallow ocean,” said Edwin Kite, assistant professor of geophysical sciences at UChicago and lead author of the study. The team’s findings are published in the Astrophysical Journal.

Astronomers have been scoping the solar system for Earth-like planets that could one day support life for decades – resulting in the relatively recent discovery of several exoplanets that appear to be humankind’s best shot at an alternative to their home planet.

However, some of the exoplanet options have been deemed less viable because they’re completely covered in an ocean hundreds of miles deep, covering all rock and suppressing volcanoes.

Through a simulation of thousands of randomly-generated planets which tracked their climate evolution over billions of years, the team found that many sitting in just the right location around their stars stayed stable for longer than expected.

READ MORE: Kepler-90: NASA announces discovery of solar system similar to ours

The surprise was that many of them stay stable for more than a billion years, just by luck of the draw,” Kite said. “Our best guess is that it’s on the order of 10 percent of them.”

Kite says the scientific community has been too quick to disregard the ocean planets because they can’t regulate their temperature in the way Earth does – by drawing down greenhouse gases into minerals and warming the planet by releasing them via volcanoes.

The team found that any planet with the right amount of carbon and the ability to cycle it between the atmosphere and ocean is enough to maintain the planet’s balance.

Domino-effect of climate events could move Earth into a ‘hothouse’ state

A domino-like cascade of melting ice, warming seas, shifting currents and dying forests could tilt the Earth into a “hothouse” state beyond which human efforts to reduce emissions will be increasingly futile, a group of leading climate scientists has warned.

This grim prospect is sketched out in a journal paper that considers the combined consequences of 10 climate change processes, including the release of methane trapped in Siberian permafrost and the impact of melting ice in Greenland on the Antarctic.

The authors of the essay, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, stress their analysis is not conclusive, but warn the Paris commitment to keep warming at 2C above pre-industrial levels may not be enough to “park” the planet’s climate at a stable temperature.

They warn that the hothouse trajectory “would almost certainly flood deltaic environments, increase the risk of damage from coastal storms, and eliminate coral reefs (and all of the benefits that they provide for societies) by the end of this century or earlier.”

“I do hope we are wrong, but as scientists we have a responsibility to explore whether this is real,” said Johan Rockström, executive director of the Stockholm Resilience Centre. “We need to know now. It’s so urgent. This is one of the most existential questions in science.”

Rockström and his co-authors are among the world’s leading authorities on positive feedback loops, by which warming temperatures release new sources of greenhouse gases or destroy the Earth’s ability to absorb carbon or reflect heat.

Their new paper asks whether the planet’s temperature can stabilise at 2C or whether it will gravitate towards a more extreme state. The authors attempt to assess whether warming can be halted or whether it will tip towards a “hothouse” world that is 4C warmer than pre-industrial times and far less supportive of human life.

Katherine Richardson from the University of Copenhagen, one of the authors, said the paper showed that climate action was not just a case of turning the knob on emissions, but of understanding how various factors interact at a global level.

“We note that the Earth has never in its history had a quasi-stable state that is around 2C warmer than the preindustrial and suggest that there is substantial risk that the system, itself, will ‘want’ to continue warming because of all of these other processes – even if we stop emissions,” she said. “This implies not only reducing emissions but much more.”

New feedback loops are still being discovered. A separate paper published in PNAS reveals that increased rainfall – a symptom of climate change in some regions - is making it harder for forest soils to trap greenhouse gases such as methane.

Previous studies have shown that weakening carbon sinks will add 0.25C, forest dieback will add 0.11C, permafrost thaw will add 0.9C and increased bacterial respiration will add 0.02C. The authors of the new paper also look at the loss of methane hydrates from the ocean floor and the reduction of snow and ice cover at the poles.

Rockström says there are huge gaps in data and knowledge about how one process might amplify another. Contrary to the Gaia theory, which suggests the Earth has a self-righting tendency, he says the feedbacks could push the planet to a more extreme state.

As an example, the authors say the loss of Greenland ice could disrupt the Gulf Stream ocean current, which would raise sea levels and accumulate heat in the Southern Ocean, which would in turn accelerate ice loss from the east Antarctic. Concerns about this possibility were heightened earlier this year by reports that the Gulf Stream was at its weakest level in 1,600 years.

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Currently, global average temperatures are just over 1C above pre-industrial levels and rising at 0.17C per decade. The Paris climate agreement set actions to keep warming limited to 1.5C-2C by the end of the century, but the authors warn more drastic action may be necessary.

“The heatwave we now have in Europe is not something that was expected with just 1C of warming,” Rockström said. “Several positive feedback loops are already in operation, but they are still weak. We need studies to show when they might cause a runaway effect.

Another climate scientist – who was not involved in the paper – emphasised the document aimed to raise questions rather than prove a theory. “It’s rather selective, but not outlandish,” said Prof Martin Siegert, co-director of the Grantham Institute. “Threshold and tipping points have been discussed previously, but to state that 2C is a threshold we can’t pull back from is new, I think. I’m not sure what ‘evidence’ there is for this – or indeed whether there can be until we experience it.”

Rockström said the question needed asking. “We could end up delivering the Paris agreement and keep to 2C of warming, but then face an ugly surprise if the system starts to slip away,” he said. “We don’t say this will definitely happen. We just list all the disruptive events and come up with plausible occurrences … 50 years ago, this would be dismissed as alarmist, but now scientists have become really worried.”

“In the context of the summer of 2018, this is definitely not a case of crying wolf, raising a false alarm: the wolves are now in sight,” said Dr Phil Williamson, a climate researcher at the University of East Anglia. “The authors argue that we need to be much more proactive in that regard, not just ending greenhouse gas emissions as rapidly as possible, but also building resilience in the context of complex Earth system processes that we might not fully understand until it is too late.”

Blood Moon dazzles star gazers in longest lunar eclipse of 21st century

NAIROBI (Reuters) - A blood-red moon dazzled star gazers across much of the world on Friday when it moved into Earth’s shadow for the longest lunar eclipse of the 21st Century.

From the Cape of Good Hope to the Middle East, and from the Kremlin to Sydney Harbour, thousands of people turned their eyes to the stars to watch the moon, which turned dark before shining orange, brown and crimson in the shadow.

The total eclipse lasted 1 hour, 42 minutes and 57 seconds, though a partial eclipse preceded and follows, meaning the moon will spend a total of nearly 4 hours in the Earth’s umbral shadow, according to NASA.

The fullest eclipse was visible from Europe, Russia, Africa, the Middle East, and much of Asia and Australia though clouds blocked out the moon in some places.

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The eclipse will not be visible from North America or most of the Pacific.

Reuters charted the eclipse from across the world, capturing a shimmering orange and red moon above Cairo, the Temple of Poseidon in Cape Sounion, near Athens, the Bavarian village of Raisting in Germany, Rio beach in Brazil and Johannesburg.

In Nairobi, Kenyans watched as the moon darkened.

“This is what life is all about: Magical moments like this,” said Teddy Muthusi as he watched from Uhuru Park in Nairobi. “It’s just beautiful. It’s well worth it.”

On the banks of India’s Ganges, temples were closed ahead of the eclipse. Enthusiasts watched through telescopes at the Marina South Pier in Singapore and at the Al Sadeem Observatory in Al Wathba near Abu Dhabi.

Hundreds of people in Australia paid to watch the eclipse from the Sydney Observatory before sunrise.

When the moon moved into the conical shadow of the earth, it went from being illuminated by the sun to being dark. Some light, though, still reaches it because it is bent by the Earth’s atmosphere.

Graphic of eclipse tmsnrt.rs/2JP09kK

“It’s called a blood moon because the light from the sun goes through the Earth’s atmosphere on its way to the moon, and the Earth’s atmosphere turns it red in the same way that when the sun goes down it goes red,” Andrew Fabian, professor of astronomy at the University of Cambridge, told Reuters.

At the same time, Mars is traveling closer to Earth than it has done since 2003, so some observers may see what looks like an orange-red star - and is in fact the red planet.

“It is a very unusual coincidence to have a total lunar eclipse and Mars at opposition on the same night,” said Robert Massey, deputy executive director of the Royal Astronomical Society, who watched the eclipse from the Mediterranean Sea.

For thousands of years, man has looked to the heavens for omens of doom, victory and joy. The Bible contains references to the moon turning into blood and some ultra-Orthodox Jews consider lunar eclipses ominous and a cause for moral contemplation.

According to some Hindu beliefs, celestial bodies such as the sun and moon emit negative energy during an eclipse and so some temples in India were closed to minimize any disturbance.

Astronomers, though, said there was no cause for worry.

“There is no reason to believe that blood moons foretell doom,” said Massey. “This does not herald the apocalypse: seeing a lunar eclipse and Mars in the sky is something people should enjoy rather than worry about.”

The next lunar eclipse of such a length is due in 2123.

 

Climate Change Could Turn Earth into Venus: Stephen Hawking

The British physicist said Venus was once an inhabitable Earth-like planet, but greenhouse gases raised its surface temperatures to boiling point – and beyond.

In the second episode of his new series "Stephen Hawking's Favorite Places," the British physicist warns Earth could soon become as hot as Venus if action to halt climate change is not taken immediately.

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Hawking says Venus was once an Earth-like planet with surface water, mild temperatures and an appropiate atmosphere. According to NASA, Venus was an inhabitable planet for a period of about two billion years as recently as four billion years ago.

Now temperatues on Venus reach 250°C with powerful 300mph winds. Hawking says a greenhouse effect burned the planet's oceans and lands, and that something similar could happen right here on Earth if climate change continues unabated.

"Next time you meet a climate-change denier, tell them to take a trip to Venus; I will pay the fare," says the physicist in his show.

Hawking has severely criticized Trump's decision last year to pull the United States out of the Paris Agreement. The US president has stated before that this climate pact puts the US economy at a disadvantage, even denying that climate change is a real thing and stating that he cares not for the citizens of Paris, but only those of the United States.

The Paris climate agreement is an international effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and was signed by 195 nations in 2015.

In the Starmus Festival last year, Hawking said Trump's decision was "the most serious and wrong decision on climate change this world has seen." He also said that the human race would have to colonize outer space in the next 200 to 500 years if we are to survive as species.

Since then, Hawking has stated multiple times his hopes for a new era of space exploration, in which nations unite toward a single goal.

"It is clear we are entering a new space age. We are standing at the threshold of a new era. Human colonisation and other planets is no longer science fiction, it can be science fact."

The scientist is currently working on Breakthrough Starshot, a project that could send "a ground-based light beamer pushing ultra-light nanocrafts – miniature space probes attached to lightsails – to speeds of up to 100 million miles an hour" to Alpha Centauri, the closest star system, in just 20 years.

"Stephen Hawking's Favorite Places" won an Emmy last year and is available for streaming at Curiosity Stream.

6th mass extinction event could happen by 2100 – study

Over the past 540 million years Earth has suffered five mass extinction events, the worst of which wiped out more than 9 per cent of marine life on the planet. A new study has suggested that the next such catastrophe might not be too far away.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) geophysicist and mathematician, Daniel Rothman has been busy studying previous mass extinctions. He reckons the next one might be a mere 83 years away.

The previous five catastrophic events each unfolded over millions of years and involved the natural cycle of carbon through the oceans and atmosphere being disturbed, resulting, in some cases, the death of almost all life on Earth.

The award-winning mathematician identified two “thresholds of catastrophe” that, if exceeded, would upset the natural order of the cycle, leading to an unstable environment and eventually a mass extinction.

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The first relates to changes in the carbon cycle over a period of thousands or millions of years. A mass extinction will occur if the rate of change in the cycle occurs faster than global ecosystems can adapt.

The second pertains to the size or magnitude of the carbon flux over a shorter period, as has been the case over the last century.

Therein lies a problem, however, as Rothman says“How can you really compare these great events in the geologic past, which occur over such vast timescales, to what's going on today, which is centuries at the longest?”

“So I sat down one summer day and tried to think about how one might go about this systematically.”

@RT_com 'We run out of space, the only places to go to are other worlds' - on space colonization at https://on.rt.com/8fho

Following this, he devised a mathematical formula to determine the total mass of carbon added to the oceans during each event, after which “it became evident that there was a characteristic rate of change that the system basically didn't like to go past.”

Rothman estimates this to be 310 gigatons. He thinks that given the rise of carbon dioxide over the last century, a sixth mass extinction could be on the way as estimates suggest that humans will add roughly 310 gigatons to the cycle by 2100.

READ MORE: ‘What the frack! We’re destroying all life, we have a huge problem’

“This is not saying that disaster occurs the next day,” Rothman said. “It’s saying that, if left unchecked, the carbon cycle would move into a realm which would be no longer stable, and would behave in a way that would be difficult to predict. In the geologic past, this type of behavior is associated with mass extinction.”

Rothman's paper was published Wednesday in the journal Science Advances.

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