Edmundo García in Havana: «What’s Bad is to be Afraid of Fear»

After living almost twenty years in Miami, where he defended Cuba and its Revolution, Cuban journalist Edmundo García decided that Havana should be the core of his life and work.

«I returned to reside here as a cornerstone of my life and work in Cuba, but my goal is to transmit the issues of immigration, which the great majority is in Miami, from anywhere, from Cuba, from Spain... that doesn’t mean that I will go into exile from Miami. I will keep travelling to Miami when they invite me to participate in any debate», he said in conversation with CubaSí which we transcribe here below:

MHL: Let’s speak of the news. The New Herald has just given you a full column. I don't recall they mention you before...

Edmundo García: The New Herald mentioned me and Diario de Cuba, Cibercuba and a group of similar media follow suit, they all wanted to mention me. I posted in my Facebook that: who understands the media of Miami, because when I was there the only one who dared to invite me over, with all the wrongs and grief of sharing a TV studio with María Elvira, because she always assumed the position against my opinions, I must acknowledge that she was the only one who dared. The other ones didn't dare to debate neither to invite me. And now they want to publish my laundry receipts. They are willing to do everything or anything with me. There is even a newspaper of Miami offering money for an exclusive interview, but come to think of it, I give you the exclusive interview for free. Do you here in CubaSí pay?

MHL: No, we don't pay...

Edmundo García: I don't get it. What it does prove is that they listened to me; it’s that although they didn't invite me, they were indeed aware of my existence, of my opinions, because they have referred to them and, therefore, they listened to me...

MHL: Could it be considered the publication of a photo where you appear next to the Five Heroes as an act of intimidation?

Edmundo García: On my side?

MHL: On their side...

Edmundo García: I don't know that... Well, later I published one with Raúl Castro. Look I am not afraid of fear. What’s bad is to be afraid of fear. I am a transparent man and, supposedly, they should understand that I move among the standards of journalism and the life of a free man. I don't know why all the fuss. Although, in the end of the bottle, as Lezama Lima would say, it does create some intimidation.

MHL: You are a very peculiar émigré. You were first an economic émigré who was later politicized. You are the opposite of the old émigrés of Miami who are political émigrés. You were politicized in Miami taking Cuba’s side.

Edmundo García: Firstly, it’s good to clarify that I was always an economic émigré. I never had any problem with my ideas around the Revolution, around the history of Cuba, and I ended up in Miami for personal reasons. Now, there is no doubt that Miami gets into you. Even people who don’t have it in them the public attitude because they are not journalists, because they don't have media, I believe they are awakening. I get many messages telling me that, what it meant for them to hear and see the attitude that somehow I kept, unwavering, without hesitations. Miami is a Ñico López. Here there is a school for the Communist Party named Ñico López. Because when you hear the extreme right of Miami refers to Cuba... we must remember that they began hating Fidel and Raúl... and ended up hating the people of Cuba. If you have a shred of patriotism, ideologies aside, you don't have to be communist neither socialist, you can be more capitalist than Wall Street itself, but if you have a shred of patriotism, you will reject the extreme right of Miami. They hate the Cuban people. Let’s not forget the attitude of the Cuban–American congressmen, their celebration and boasting, when the measures against the Cuban families were passed when George W. Bush was in office that limited the travel of Cubans to once every three years and limited migrant remittances and so on; let’s not forget the celebrations those sectors had.

I remember he was very confused Lincoln Díaz-Balart, because I was working for Univision—everybody knows what’s channel 23—, and at a press conference he asked me if I wasn’t going to ask any questions. It seems that I had caught Lincoln’s eye, a bit of my irreverence already showed. And I told him: Look, congressman, when I hear you speak I feel a strong desire to return to Cuba and become a militiaman. That left him very confused.

MHL: And speaking of measures: the fabricated story about the acoustic attacks and the closing of embassies, consulates, employees... How does the ordinary Cuban of Miami see all that?

Edmundo García: Look, I believe is common knowledge that all that is a hoax. What’s the gain for Cuba in doing that? Do they want to raise enmity with the United States? It has never been in Cuba’s will to have enmity. Cuba is indeed a sovereign country. It’s mutual respect. Cuba doesn't have a budget for that or Task force whatsoever to undermine the North American politics. That topic is really to please... This is Trump’s commitment with Brigade 2506, with Marco Rubio, and the followers of people like Ninoska Lucrecia Pérez Castellón, Armando Pérez Roura, those oral clowns of Miami. The scientific community has disproved that. Cuba has always been very respectful. In Cuba there was always a concept of integrity, and still is, respect to the Vienna Agreements regarding diplomatic relationships. In Cuba there has always been a strict ethics in the treatment to diplomatic offices, and this comes since Fidel Castro until the President Díaz-Canel. The rumor that there is a sector of far left in the Cuban services is really an attempt to fool people...

MHL: And do people let themselves be fooled?

Edmundo García: I think that people know that it’s not true. Who benefits from what you do? When you do something, somebody obtains a benefit...

MHL: There must be a motive...

Edmundo García: And which is the motive? I think that is horseplay. I am sure that within the very FBI know that that is horseplay. My personal opinion, I can’t prove it—if I had how to prove it, I were Superman—, but in my personal opinion, this is a CIA operation. Let’s not forget who was the former CIA director, the person who now works as Secretary of State. Let’s not forget his relationship with senator Marco Rubio and let’s not forget the triangle with Donald Trump’s presidency. You can’t be deceived. You can be anti-Castro all you want, you can be also anticommunist, and now if you wish you can leave this part out, but from there to be an asshole, there’s a long stretch.

MHL: Did you participate, being there, in the summoning made to Cubans to participate on the debate of the Constitution Draft?

Edmundo García: I was aware of the debate on the Constitution Draft. I was aware through internet of the participation of Cubans. I think is very interesting and useful that Cubans participate. And I connect that with the topic of repatriation again. I believe that Cuban emigration should have greater presence inside Cuba. More sense of normalization, better communication. The repatriation doesn't force you to return to live in Cuba. You can live where you wish, however, you start having certain rights, including the right to vote. And also, it’s to settle the belonging to the roots, to strengthen the trunk to the roots.

MHL: While you have been here, did you see the debates on television...

Edmundo García: I don't know any process in the world, in the so-called democracies, and in the championships of «democracy», I don't know any referendum as the one Cuba is making in the topic of the Constitution. Summoned by Cuban authorities beginning with the first secretary of the Communist Party, the Army General Raúl Castro, to the common citizen. If anyone knows, I would like, if there has been a similar process since the Greece of the democracy until today please tell me, because in my illiteracy I don't know it.

MHL: And The Afternoon...

Edmundo García: The Afternoon Moves (La tarde se mueve) is the project I want to continue developing. Me, as presenter, my expertise is Cuban emigration. And that can be broadcasted from Cuba, from Miami, from Madrid. What I want is for my headquarters to be in Havana, but I can also spend time in Miami. Go to Miami and shoot programs, and participate in debates. I am a free electron; I am not bound to a specific geographical location. Ah, that Cuba is the natural scenario to address the emigration, of course is the best, because what I want is to magnetize the emigration with its origin. And we’ll see how we can guide again The Afternoon Moves, but my main topic is emigration. And, of course, that city that I won't say that it’s an illegitimate province, because I believe there are a lot of good people in Miami, most people are good, but with the attention in particular to that city, because I know it and because it really has a specific weight in the politics of the United States towards Cuba.

  • Published in Specials

Concert on 120th Anniversary of Japanese Migration to Cuba

Japanese musicians and the Cuban group Havana Ensemble will share the stage in Havana to celebrate the 120th anniversary of the first Japanese migration to Cuba, organizers announced.

The concert, scheduled for December 17 and 18, will also include performances by the The Taiko Club of the Reitaku Mizunami School in Japan.

At the Jose Marti Theater, the cultural event will be part of the visit by a Japanese delegation headed by the president of the Japan-Cuba Parliamentary Friendship League, Keiji Furuya.

Directed by Cuban saxophonist Cesar López, Habana Ensemble has a series of new elements, in both in the music and aesthetics, which differentiate it significantly from other Cuban groups.

The celebrations on the 120th anniversary of Japanese migration to Cuba will also include an exhibition of dolls, friendly games, panels, academic exchange, conferences, presentation of calendars, public speaking contest and the publication of a commemorative book.

Japanese immigrants began arriving in Cuba in 1898, mainly from the regions of Okinawa, Kagoshima, Kumamoto, Fukuoka, Hiroshima, Nagano, Niigata, Fukushima and Miyagi.

  • Published in Culture

The U.S. and the Center American Exodus

The migration of Center Americans, mainly toward the United States has won visibility thanks to the current caravan crossing Mexico, but this is an old phenomenon.

In 2017 the UN agency International Organization for Migration informed that 450 thousand migrants, mainly Central Americans, cross Mexico yearly heading for the United States. This phenomenon boomed in the 80’s of the last century as a consequence of Washington’s massive support to the armies and repressive forces of El Salvador and Guatemala in their bloody war against the liberating movements in those countries which, next to Honduras, were deeply affected. The war originated, mainly in El Salvador, a great flow of refugees, among them thousands of young orphans.

It was not the first, neither the last time when the North American imperialism intervened in Central American countries. Since early in the XX century Washington sent several times marines to impose its wishes in that region of our America. It’s well known the heroic deeds of Agusto Cesar Sandino and his “small crazy army” against the Yankee military intervention early on the XX century in Nicaragua.

Decades later, that country and the Sandinista Liberation Front government would suffer an implacable and bloody aggression by Ronald Reagan’s government. An counterrevolutionary army organized and armed illegally by United States was supplied by air from Honduras in a CIA operation, the Iran-Contras, implemented from there by terrorists of Cuban origin. The airplanes came loaded with weapons from North American territory and returned with drugs to that country. At the same time, that agency created the Death Squads which, causing serious human rights violations, kept in line the Honduran revolutionaries. In 1989, George Bush father ordered the deadly Panama invasion with a total of 3000 killed.

In 2009, from the Military Base of Soto Cano, in Honduras, where the Bravo Task Force of the South Command of the United States, this triggered the coup d’état against president Manuel Zelaya. That action is closely related to the facts that have led to the massive migration of Central Americans. Zelaya entered ALBA and established a flowing cooperation relationship with Venezuela with Chavez in power. He was able to get OAS to lift the exclusion of Cuba in a general assembly of that organization and he was attempting to organize a constituent assembly to transfer to the Honduran people control over their national sovereignty as well as their natural resources. None of this was tolerable for Washington that not only ordered the coup but did everything in its power to consolidate it. Ever since every election in Honduras have been a fraud, including the one that elected the current president Juan Orlando Hernández. Zelaya, allied to the Daniel Ortega's Nicaragua would have been an obstacle for the plans of looting and territorial expansion through mining transnational and the so-called Special Economic Zones.

The sparks of the current and unstoppable migratory movement was the stanch application in Central America of the neoliberal politics designed by the so-called Washington Consent which has become more and more bloody and unsustainable. The people of Latin America and the Caribbean are being subjected to a second conquest and colonization, through transnational companies and the militarization displayed by the United States which includes the presence of military bases in our countries. Satellites governments of the imperialism offer every possibility to transnational companies in their expansion plans of accelerated use of natural resources and overexploitation of the labor force. All of it through the spoiling of lands and waters from indigenous communities, afro descendants and peasants, repressed, when they rebel, not only by the security bodies. Also, frequently, by the so-called organized crime well-paid in return. Also the breaking of productive chains that has led to the deindustrialization and loss of dozens of thousands of jobs.

This neoliberal aggression to the previous ways of capitalist productive organization, dragging unemployment and collapse of the social fabric is the main cause of the growing migration and forced exodus of millions of people toward the United States. The unstoppable peak of criminal organizations and brutal violence against peoples and communities makes it worse. The performance map is superimposed to that of the megaprojects of neoliberalism 3.0.

It’s not in Caracas, it’s in Washington, where for some time now is looming the migratory tragedy of Center America and Mexico.

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Italy: Diplomatic tensions flare as migrants head to Spain

CATANIA, Sicily — Italy escalated its standoff with France over migration Wednesday, challenging Paris to take in more asylum-seekers and demanding an apology after the French president accused the new populist Italian government of cynical, irresponsible behavior by refusing entry to a rescue ship with 600 people aboard.

Italy summoned the French ambassador for consultations and Interior Minister Matteo Salvini chided French President Emmanuel Macron by name during a speech before Parliament’s upper chamber.

Salvini said France had taken in only a fraction of the 9,816 migrants it had pledged to welcome under a 2015 EU relocation plan to relieve frontline countries Italy and Greece of the burden of caring for newly arrived migrants.

“So I ask President Macron to pass from words to action and tomorrow morning welcome the 9,000 France promised to welcome as a sign of concrete generosity and not just words,” Salvini said to applause in the Senate chamber.

“I speak in the name of a government but I also have the ambition of speaking for a people who have nothing to learn from anyone about generosity, volunteerism, welcome and solidarity,” he said.

Italy has defended its decision to refuse to allow the Aquarius rescue ship to dock, saying it has never abandoned the ship and is escorting it to Spain. Spain stepped up and offered the Aquarius safe harbor in Valencia after Italy and Malta both refused.

The standoff over the Aquarius appeared a clear tactic by Italy’s new government to force Europe’s hand at the upcoming summit of EU leaders in Brussels June 28-29. Italy for years has complained that it has been left largely alone to manage Europe’s migrant crisis, but the new government says its tactics have finally gotten the point across.

Salvini has accused European aid groups of essentially operating taxi services for Libya-based human traffickers, and has said Italy will now refuse their rescue ships entry. Italian maritime vessels, however, are still docking in its ports: on Wednesday, an Italian coast guard vessel docked in Catania, Sicily with 932 migrants aboard.

The Diciotti was greeted in Catania’s port by activists criticizing the new policy, with a banner draped at the port saying “Stop the attack on refugees.”

French President Emmanuel Macron had blasted what he called Italy’s cynicism and irresponsibility in turning away the Aquarius, which is operated by the humanitarian group SOS Mediterranee and the French-founded Doctors Without Borders.

Macron’s office said Tuesday that France doesn’t want to “start a precedent” that would allow some European countries to breach international laws and rely on other EU member states to take in migrants.

In his speech, Salvini shot back and said France had turned back 10,249 migrants at Italy’s northern border since January “including women, children and disabled people.” The border crossing point at Ventimiglia has been the scene of protests and desperation for years as France has refused to let in migrants, many of whom are seeking to reach family in France or Germany.

Under the EU’s asylum laws — currently the subject of revision amid a major political dispute — migrants must apply for asylum in the country where they first enter Europe. In practice, this has placed a heavy burden on Italy and Greece, where hundreds of thousands of people have entered in recent years. Some countries feel justified in stopping migrants from entering when they should have registered elsewhere.

Salvini also demanded that France make good on its pledge to relocate migrants under a 2015 EU scheme that never fully got off the ground.

France was to have accepted a total of 19,714 migrants from Italy and Greece; in all, it accepted 4,677. Across the European Union, only a third of the 98,255 migrants that were supposed to be relocated under the scheme had been relocated by the time it ended last year.

Salvini’s League campaigned during the March 4 national election on a strong anti-migrant agenda that included promises of mass expulsions of migrants already here. According to government figures, Italy has accepted 640,000 migrants since 2014, but the number of arrivals this year is at a five-year low: 14,441 since January.

The number of migrants arriving in Italy began plummeting last year after the Italian government under the center-left Democratic Party negotiated controversial deals with Libya that beefed up its capacity to better patrol its coasts and discouraged land-based smugglers.

Earlier Wednesday, Salvini accused France of having caused the instability in Libya that has allowed smuggling networks to thrive by spearheading the 2011 NATO-led military campaign that led to the downfall of Libyan strongman Moammar Gadhafi.

The Aquarius and two Italian ships that have taken some of the migrants are now expected to arrive in Valencia on Saturday night, weather conditions permitting, said SOS Mediterranee’s co-founder Sophie Beau. The port is some 1,500 kilometers (930 miles) from where the ship had been on standby since Saturday night.

“It’s a relief for everyone, our teams and of course above all for the survivors to know that they are finally allowed to head to a safe port in Europe,” Beau told reporters in Marseille, France.

  • Published in World

Trump, Marco Rubio and the Cuban Migration

Since his presidential campaign Trump has been Benton creating a climate of racial, religious and political hatred within and outside the United States.  

He broke up with the Paris Agreement about climate change and did the same regarding UNESCO. He refused to certify Iran’s fulfillment of the nuclear agreement, despite the fact that no one objects the strictest execution of his terms by the Persian country. Now he is travelling through Asia immersed in selling weapons and heating up with his very presence and words the dangerous conflict with Pyongyang that could be solved through the dialogue, but with Trump’s provocations can lead to a nuclear war.  

The aggressive imperialistic group Trump represents is not willing to accept that the United States cannot longer exercise the hegemony almost alone as it did after the collapse of the Soviet Union neither admit the irreversible fact of the multipolarity. He can’t accept disagreements, even less from small countries.  

For that reason he is tearing apart most of Obama’s softening measures regarding Cuba, although the main argument his predecessor used to carry them are still intact: that the blockade and hostility politics had not worked (to attain a régime change). As an aftermath, Obama proposed to the Congress the lifting the genocidal measure. He hadn’t become socialist. He expressed an idea shared by most North Americans and Cubans residents in the United States who have made great part of the establishment, as evidenced on the shower of critics this week after Trump’s announcement of detailed Anti-Cuban measures.

Likewise Trump breakaways from the agreement with Iran although the latter meets is to the letter, the Department of State expels almost the entire personnel from the Cuban Embassy without any explanation, beyond vague reference to the already huge lie of the sonic attack. What’s more critical it leaves with hardly any personnel the consulate with the ultimate purpose to hinder the travel of North Americans to Cuba and of Cuban residents in the U.S. As if traveling restriction weren’t enough for the North Americans as well as for Cuban residents in the island, he has forced them to move to third countries to request a North American visa.  

Nevertheless the verbal attacks Marco Rubio directed during the republican pre-campaign to the presidency, Trump has made peace with the senator and keeps a romance with the old hard core of counterrevolution of Miami, a minority group within the Cuban community and far from the feelings of this very community but with economic and political power in Florida, enriched with the Anti-Castro industry. The real estate magnate has given Rubio and the representative Mario Díaz-Balart an important share in the politics design toward Cuba and Venezuela. It seems as if both legislators understand each other directly with general McMaster – National Security advisor and expert in counter insurgence - and with the CIA and the United States Southern Command.  

But as Washington blocks the relationship of Cubans from both shores, Cuba takes more steps to facilitate it line with the politics of migratory upgrade started on January 14th, 2013. It eliminates bureaucratic red tape, it authorizes the entrance of thousands of migrants who left the Island illegally and who since January 1st, 2018 will be able to meet their relatives in Cuba. It decides to grant the right to Cuban citizenship to children born abroad from Cuban residents in other countries, an important benefit in the case of France and Germany who don't allow them to obtain their citizenship.  

Since 2013 have traveled abroad more than 769 254 Cubans, 79% for the first time. So far in 2017, it has been achieved 28% of growth in comparison with the same period of 2016.  

In 2016 a total of 428 000 Cuban resident abroad, 329 000 of them coming from the United States, while in year 2015 Cuba was visited by 378 000 Cubans and 285 000 North Americans. The increment of overseas Cuban residents who decide to establish their permanent residence in Cuba is still steady.  

The irregular emigration has decreased to the minimum since Washington eliminated the infamous wet feet dry feet politics, which confirms the posture of Havana that always considered it the trigger of that dangerous and chaotic emigration.

Amilkal Labañino Valdes / Cubasi Translation Staff 

  • Published in Specials

Questions and Answers on New Migratory Measures

Several questions have risen around the four measures to be passed next January 1st. Here are some answers to some of the most recurrent questions on the issue:

-What does it mean to eliminate the requirement of enabling the passport for Cuban residents abroad?

With this measure it’s eliminated the step which although a one-time and free procedure in the consular offices, it lengthened the process for obtaining the passport, and people spent money and time in trips and lodgings, among others. Since January 1st, 2018, Cubans residing abroad will only need a valid passport to enter or exit the Island.

-With the elimination of this procedure, does it change what was established on the renovation or extension of the passport?

No. Cubans residing abroad must renovate the passport every six years and over that period of time they must get a passport extension every two years, to make it still valid. After the six years established in the legislation a new one needs to be made. The extension requirement will remain intact after the elimination of the procedure.

-Who won't be able to travel to Cuba even though they are Cuban resident abroad?

  

As established in article 24.1 of Law 302 of year 2012, modifying Law 1312 of year 1976, Migration Law, it would be inadmissible everyone with records of terrorist activities, human or weapon traffic, drug traffic, money laundry; or tied with crimes against humanity, the human dignity, common health; guilty of organizing, encouraging, carrying out, or participate in hostile actions against the political, economic and social foundations of the Cuban State; when defense and national security matters deem it that way, among others. These requirements stay effective.

-Who is benefit with the authorization that Cuban residents abroad can enter and exit national territory in pleasure boats?

This measure is the continuation of abovementioned authorization so that residents in Cuba or abroad, regardless their migratory condition can travel on board cruisers or join as passengers and crews in merchant ships that dock in Cuba and was passed in April 2016. All Cubans living abroad are benefit and wish to come on a pleasure boat, yachts or similar crafts.

-Will Cubans residing here be able to travel to other countries or return to Cuba in pleasure boats (yachts or similar crafts) belonging to Cubans that live in other countries?

NOT for the time being. According to a reliable source some work is still in progress in that matter and other related migratory issues, but the restriction still applies for those residing in the Island to exit or enter in pleasure boats that dock in Hemingway Marine or Varadero Marine.

-Why eliminating the ban after eight years have passed for those who left Cuba illegally and keep it for those who did it through the illegally occupied territory by United States in Guantanamo Bay?

People who dared in illegal exits mostly via marine, jeopardized their lives, those of their family, broke Cuban laws as well as international, and risked the execution of international agreements, besides risking national security; however, once the U.S. eliminated the wet-feet dry-feet politics used with political purposes to illegal Cuban migrants, as well as the elimination of the “parole” program to encourage the desertion of Cuban doctors working in third countries, it has shown a considerable decrease in the illegal flow to the U.S., thus ratifying they were incentives for illegal migration. The measure benefits all those who left Cuba illegally since year 2010 until today who will be able to travel to Cuba starting next January 1st.

In the case of those who left illegally through the Guantanamo Naval Base, committed a serious violation of laws and put at risk the national security of Cuba, hence they are forbidden entrance to the country for good.

-Will people who abandoned Cuban official missions abroad be able to come with these measures?

No. The prohibition of returning to Cuba remains -for the time established, up to five years in some cases and eight years in others - for those who abandoned overseas official missions with the purpose of emigrating, we are talking about doctors, diplomats or sport delegations, or other sort.

-What does it imply by the “elimination of the domicile" requirement?

  

Children of Cubans who were born abroad will no longer have to complete the domicile requirement to become Cuban citizens. With the elimination of this demand, they won't have to reside for a while in Cuba so they can later decide on taking the documents that validate them as Cuban, but by common law for being the son of both parents, or one of them Cuban natural.

-Do stateless persons disappear, that is, people who could not take either nationality?

One of the main legal obstacles this measure eliminates is that there won’t be any more stateless person; that is, the children of Cubans, born in countries that don't grant the nationality for being born there. Some nations only grant citizenship by what is internationally known as blood right which is simply being descendent of citizens from that nation, and not for being natural from that country. With the current legislation, the children of Cubans living in those countries didn't have citizenship, neither Cuban, neither of the State.

Since January 1st, 2018, all those born from a Cuban mother or father will be able to process the nationality through Cuba’s consulate offices, without the need to travel to Cuba and reside for some time here.

Amilkal Labañino Valdés / Cubasi Translation Staff

  • Published in Specials

Cuba Advocates for Development to Balance Migration Flow

Cuba has advocated today at the United Nations Office at Geneva to guarantee the full realization of the right to development in the world, which is a way to balance global migration flow.

Cuba representative, Luis Alberto Amoros, stated that analyzing the issue in depth is crucial to analyze the causes for which millions of people emigrate each year, even risking their lives.

'The many problems associated to migration, as its exponential increase to the industrialized world, theft of talent from developing countries and the exacerbation of the shameful discrimination and violation against migrants could only attack the structural causes of migration,' he said.

During an interactive dialogue on the human rights of migrants in the context of great movements, Amoroso defended the need for a substantial modification of the unjust and exclusive international economic order, to act on the origin of migration.

'It also requires a genuine responsibility of the main industrialized countries with international peace and security, and the abandonment of their hegemonic interests that generate situations of instability.'

An international cooperation that guarantees genuine dialogue and collaboration is vital, the shared responsibility of all States in migration matters is recognized, as the respect to the sovereignty and equality of all countries, the Cuban representative stated.

'Of course, this cooperation should ensure the integrity, dignity and welfare of migrants,' he said.

  • Published in Cuba
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