Mathematician Who Cracked Nazi Code To Win World War II To Appear On Note

Manchester: Mathematician Alan Turing, whose cracking of a Nazi code helped the Allies to win World War Two but who committed suicide after being convicted for homosexuality, will appear on the Bank of England's new 50-pound banknote, the BoE said on Monday.

"As the father of computer science and artificial intelligence, as well as war hero, Alan Turing's contributions were far-ranging and path-breaking," BoE Governor Mark Carney, who took the final decision on the character selection, said.

"Turing is a giant on whose shoulders so many now stand."

Turing's electromechanical machine, a forerunner of modern computers, unravelled the Enigma code used by Nazi Germany and helped give the Allies an advantage in the naval struggle for control of the Atlantic.

His work at Bletchley Park, Britain's wartime code-breaking centre, was credited with shortening the war and saving many thousands of lives.

But he was stripped of his job and chemically castrated after being convicted of gross indecency in 1952 for having sex with a man. Homosexual sex was illegal in Britain until 1967.

Turing killed himself in 1954, aged 41, with cyanide. He was granted a royal pardon by Queen Elizabeth in 2013 for the criminal conviction that led to his suicide.

Rights campaigner Peter Tatchell, who campaigned for Turing's pardon and organised LGBT activists to vote for him in an early round of nominations for the banknote selection, said it was a breakthrough to have a known gay person appear on an English banknote for the first time.

"This is a much-deserved accolade for one of the greatest minds of the twentieth century," Tatchell said.

A 2014 film, "The Imitation Game", starring Benedict Cumberbatch as Turing, won an Oscar for best adapted screenplay.

In 2017, under new legislation known as "Turing's Law", Britain granted posthumous pardons to thousands of gay and bisexual men who were convicted of sexual offences under laws which have since been abolished

As well as an image of Turing, the new note will feature a table and mathematical formulae from a 1936 paper by Turing on computable numbers, an image of a pilot computer and technical drawings for the machines used to break the Enigma code.

The note will also include a quote by Turing about the rise of machine intelligence: "This is only a foretaste of what is to come, and only the shadow of what is going to be."

The 50-pound note is the BoE's highest-value banknote and is rarely used in daily transactions. The new note is expected to enter circulation by the end of 2021, the BoE said.

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Vladimir Putin Says 'Not A Problem' Not To Be Invited To D-Day Anniversary

Petersburg: Russian President Vladimir Putin on Thursday said it was "not a problem" that he was not invited to the 75th anniversary of the D-Day landings in northern France, attended by other world leaders.

"We also don't invite everyone to every event. Why should I be invited everywhere?" he said of the memorial at which US President Donald Trump spoke along with French leader Emmanuel Macron.

"I have enough business of my own here," he said during an economic forum in Saint Petersburg.

Putin was at the 70th anniversary of the landings but this week Moscow insisted on the significance of D-Day in the outcome of World War II should not be overplayed.

Russia regularly accuses the West of failing to properly understand or acknowledge the enormous human losses -- estimated at 27 million deaths -- the Soviet Union suffered in the conflict.

Russians in turn often know little about the Western Front or the aid that the Soviet Union received from the United States to fight the war.

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Soviet Union oddly missing from US-made coin ‘saluting’ WWII Allies

A US-made collectable coin lists Britain and France among the honored US allies in WWII, but, strangely, the Soviet Union, whose Red Army delivered a crushing blow to the Nazis in Europe and fought Japan, is omitted.

The 24-carat gold-plated coin was designed by collectable goods and jewelry company Bradford Exchange. It was the first entry into a collection meant to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the Allied victory in WWII, depicting “key” Allied battles and honoring the Allied nations.

The coin’s reverse side shows the 33rd US president, Harry Truman, along with the 34th president, Dwight Eisenhower, who was the supreme commander of the US and British expeditionary force in Europe during the war.

The obverse side, however, contains only the flags of the US, Brittan, and France, as Allied nations the item wishes to “salute.” Oddly enough, it completely omits the Soviet Union, whose troops were instrumental to crushing the bulk of the Nazi armies in Europe.

It would have been fair to assume that the Soviet flag would possibly appear on other coins of the collection, but, according to the company’s website, the design of the obverse side will remain the same.

The Soviet Union was attacked by Nazi Germany and other Axis powers on June 22, 1941. Once that happened, the nation was almost immediately recognized by the US and Britain as an essential partner of the anti-Hitler coalition.

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After fierce resistance and four years of bloody battles, the Red Army repelled the invasion and liberated Eastern Europe from the Nazi occupation.

In 1945, Soviet soldiers captured Berlin. After the warfare in Europe was over, Moscow agreed to US requests to enter the war against Japan, defeating its forces in Manchuria.

More than 26.6 million Soviet citizens died in the war, with 8.7 million killed in combat.

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Putin says WW2 started due to disunity of world’s leading countries, calls on world to unite

The Nazis were able to start World War II because of the disunity of the world’s leading countries, Russian President Vladimir Putin stated during a Victory Day parade at Moscow’s Red Square, adding that the lessons of the past should not be ignored.

 
© Grigory Sisoev

“This horrific tragedy could not be prevented, first and foremost, because of the connivance of the criminal ideology of racial superiority, because of the disunity of the world’s leading countries. This allowed the Nazis to appropriate themselves the right to decide the fate of other peoples, to unleash the most brutal, bloody war, to enslave almost all European countries, putting them at the service of their deadly targets,” the Russian leader said, speaking during the military parade in Moscow marking the 72nd anniversary of the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945.

According to Putin, the greatness of Victory Day is “defined by the people, by their unprecedented heroic act of saving the Fatherland, and a decisive contribution to the defeat of Nazism.”

The triumphant victory over this terrible totalitarian force will remain in human history forever as the highest point of the triumph of life and mind over death and barbarity,” he stressed.

“We must remember that the victory was won at the cost of huge, irreplaceable fatalities, that the war took millions of lives,” Putin concluded.

In order to effectively combat terrorism, extremism, and neo-Nazism today, the entire world community should unite, the Russian president noted.

 

“The lessons of the past war urge us to be vigilant, and the Russian Armed Forces are capable of repelling any potential aggression,” the Russian president said, stressing that “nowadays, life itself requires raising our defense potential.”

“But to effectively combat terrorism, extremism, neo-Nazism, and other threats, consolidation of the entire international community is necessary,” Putin said.

“We are open for such cooperation, and Russia will always be on the side of forces for peace, with those who choose the path of equal partnership, who deny wars as contrary to the very essence of life and human nature.”

The Victory Day parade has concluded on Moscow’s Red Square, where some 10,000 people took part and 114 military vehicles were on display. After attending the festive event, Putin laid a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier beside the Kremlin walls to honor the fallen soldiers of World War II. Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, Defense Minister Sergey Shoigu, and other top Russian officials attended the ceremony.

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